Throughout history, people suffer from varicose veins on the legs. It is believed that this disease is a kind of payback for our upright posture – something no other mammal is not confronted with such problems. Women are more prone to the disease than men. Is the age factor, but the doctors say that in recent time, the varicose veins on the legs is much younger – among the patients now there are even students.
What are varicose veins on the legs
Spider veins, bulging swollen knotted veins – like varicose veins looks, you know, probably all. So let's talk about that during his illness occurs inside the veins.
Varicose vein elasticity decreases and, as a consequence, they expand. Inside the veins are peculiar flaps that regulate blood flow to the heart from the lower extremities. If these "gates" are working properly, then no problem. In the case of failure in their functioning, and develops varicose veins. The valves are closed, preventing the movement of blood to the heart, causing it to stagnate in the veins. Naturally increases the pressure and pushes blood from the deep veins in thicker thinner closer to the skin vessels. The system of these veins is not suitable for such volumes of blood, resulting in their walls are not only excessive stretch, but more and destroyed.
The result of this process become clearly visible on the skin spider veins, which by themselves constitute a serious aesthetic problem. The disease progresses, a thin weakened veins are becoming more pronounced, distinctive blue color, thicken, and soon they appear nodules.
Causes of varicose veins
There are many factors that significantly increase the likelihood that a given person will suffer from varicose veins:
- Genetic inheritance from parents or grandparents, faced with varicose veins, a descendant could "take" of Vienna with a special structure (weakness of connective tissue, imperfect valves, etc.); and then, without the continued observance of the preventive measures he probably must sooner or later become a patient with the diagnosis "varicose veins on the legs".
- Hormonal fluctuations – most often it affects women (menopause, menstruation, pregnancy, etc.), which explains apparent gender selectivity of the disease; in addition, the risk of varicose veins increases and treatment – it is scientifically proven that they contained female sex hormones and their deputies greatly reduce the elasticity of venous walls.
- Nervous disorders, stress, depression – all this reduces the tone of veins, because the elasticity of their walls is regulated by nerve endings.
- Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs (which, again, are more common in women) – these processes can lead to hormonal imbalance, but also can damage small veins.
- Lack of physical activity in life – due to long sitting vein is compressed, it interferes with the circulation of blood decreases the tone of venous walls, and finally the blood begins to stagnate, and there is the varicose veins (today, the doctors have even a special term – computer varicose veins, so large number of patients, the cause of the disease which was sedentary work in front of a flickering monitor).
- Excessive exercise – these include weight lifting, excess weight, pregnancy, work, associated with long standing; as a result, significantly increased pressure in the veins that lead to the occurrence of varicose veins.
- Flat feet.
- Habit always and everywhere to "flaunt" on the wrong high heels.
- Constipation, which increases pressure in the abdomen.
- Injuries and illnesses.
- Paul – as mentioned above, the risk of developing varicose veins in women above.
- The structure of the body – usually, varicose veins are more likely to suffer it is people with above-average growth.
Symptoms of varicose veins on the legs
Symptoms of varicose veins is characterized by gradual progression. Clear signs are detected immediately, at the first stage, the disease manifests itself through:
- swelling of the feet, especially after a long stay in a sitting or standing position that, as a rule, to pass in the morning – the first sign that the deep veins do not cope with their duties;
- cramps and numbness of the legs, most often this symptom shows up night and morning;
- feeling of heaviness, burning, itching and pain in the legs, especially typical for the second half of the day;
- the first visible signs – the characteristic red-blue spider veins and veins, clearly visible on the skin.
At the first warning signs should not delay with the visit to the doctor. As you know, any disease most respond well to treatment in the initial stages. If the symptoms were ignored and the patient is not considered a sufficient basis for seeking qualified help in the future, he was waiting for such features as:
- thickening and darkening of the skin of the calf: thus on it there are stains and peeling;
- veins become painful when pressed;
- severe muscle pain, the intensity of which increases during walking;
- the appearance of the speakers over the skin of legs and feet, venous nodes.
If correct treatment will not be appointed at this stage, the patient will inevitably have serious complications which will be discussed later.
When to see a doctor?
There are signs, the appearance of which is an absolute indication for urgent treatment to the doctor. These include:
- a feeling of weakness, combined with shortness of breath and a feeling of lack of oxygen;
- sharp sharp pain in the leg, the limb is sealed, there is a burning sensation;
- start bleeding calling the fears and suspicions of the plot.
How is this diagnosis?
Accurate diagnosis can only ask a professional doctor or a vascular surgeon. To see a specialist preferably at the first warning signals of the body. Of course, the first testing procedures are the inspection and survey of the patient. Then, in order to confirm the diagnosis and to obtain maximum information on the nature and severity of the disease may need the following procedures:
- Ultrasound of the veins in the process of this study not only revealed the presence of varicose veins, but also conclusions about the direction of blood flow, presence of clots and tumors, an estimate of how dilated vessels;
- contrast venography is very accurate and informative research method, the results of which there is an opportunity to fully assess the condition of the veins; this examination is carried out by introducing into the human body a contrast agent, a coloring blood.
Both of these methods are interchangeable. Because of least invasiveness in recent times, preferred ultrasound of the veins.
How dangerous are varicose veins?
Varicose there is an aphorism created by the doctors "Disease, manifested on the legs, and shooting in the heart." Indeed, this illness is not just an aesthetic problem, troublesome and reduces the quality of life. In the absence of qualified medical assistance varicose veins lead to serious complications, including death.
So, the effects of varicose veins on the legs can be:
- thrombophlebitis – a disease accompanied by the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the affected veins;
- violation of nutrition of tissues;
- increased pigmentation;
- increased blood clots – dangerous not only for health, but for the life complication.
We should say about such a common "companion" of varicose veins on the legs as trophic ulcer. The reason for its occurrence is a constant venous insufficiency and high blood pressure in the veins. Such ulcers usually heal slowly, they are very difficult to treat and thus able to limit the work capacity of the patient and may even cause disability. Swelling, excruciating pain and even bad smell – all this makes life very difficult. The emergence of trophic ulcers suffering from varicose veins of the person contributing even minor injuries and bruises, which it is simply impossible to avoid. By the way, sometimes (in rare cases) of these lesions transform into malignant tumor.
Treatment of varicose veins on the legs
Treatment of varicose veins on the legs depends, first of all, from the stage of the disease. If we are talking about the initial stages of the disease, when not yet declared itself complications and irreversible processes, it is commonly used conservative treatment, i.e. treatment without surgery which can include the following procedures:
- Drug therapy – it comes as tablets (veno-tonic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulants), and on local resources, ie all sorts of ointments.
- Compression treatment – wearing special compression stockings or, alternatively, wrapping the foot with an elastic bandage.
- Pneumatic massage is carried out with the help of a special device, activates blood circulation, improves tissue trophism and as a result, the unpleasant symptoms of varicose veins diminish and disappear.
- Sclerotherapy is used in the case where no removal of the affected veins is not enough. Is performed without a surgical scalpel, the vein injected a special drug that blocks the flow of blood, as a result, the vessel gradually atrophies and disappears. It's not happening quickly, during the year may need one session, but the effect of scleroplastic worth it.
- Laser coagulation is one of the most modern methods, is performed under local anesthesia, the result can be evaluated after a month.
- Leeches – this is one of the nonconventional methods of treatment of varicose veins on the legs based on the leeches – when piercing the patient's skin and subsequent sucking they produce a substance that makes the blood less thick; however, today it is possible to do without the leeches – on the shelves of pharmacies there are many preparations containing this tool.
Prevention of varicose veins
Special attention to the prevention of varicose veins on the legs needs to be given to people at risk: those whose relatives suffer from this disease, representatives of certain professions (teachers, hairdressers, etc.), people who are overweight, pregnant, etc.
First and foremost, you need to lead an active lifestyle. Sports (swimming, Bicycle), prefer Hiking "standing" to travel in public transport, to climb to your floor by stairs, not the Elevator, etc.
Those who by occupation is compelled to spend a long time in a sitting or standing position, should pay attention to the following recommendations:
- With a long standing better from time to time to cross from one foot to the other while wiggling their toes.
- Office workers spending days behind a computer screen, is recommended to periodically put his feet on the table – in this position significantly improves the outflow of blood from the veins of the lower extremities.
- A small footrest is able to reduce the dangerous pressure; and, besides, it is very comfortable during long periods of sitting to perform basic exercises.
- A simple exercise consisting of intermittent lifting of the toes, contributes to the tension of the leg muscles and improves the flow of blood up.
- At least once per hour for 5-10 minutes should be off the bench and getting some exercise.
Compression is used not only to treat varicose veins, but also for its prevention. For example, if a person in the family suffer from this disease, during pregnancy, during flights and long journeys by bus or train, in the process of training it is better to use compression stockings or wrap the feet with elastic bandage.
If the problem has already made itself even in the most mild, you should avoid the following:
- taking oral contraceptives (they contain hormones that can worsen the situation);
- wearing shoes with high heels;
- excess weight and obesity;
- eating salty, fatty and spicy dishes;
- carrying heavy bags and suitcases (now very popular Luggage on wheels);
- depilation wax;
- long hot baths;
- saunas and baths;
- alcohol abuse, Smoking;