Varicose veins of the lower extremities

A variety of diseases of leg veins – a consequence of a number of adverse factors affecting the lower extremities of a human. Knowing their symptoms, it is necessary to recognize these diseases, to take measures for their treatment, avoid severe complications. Varicose veins of the lower extremities often develops gradually, at first not paying attention. But attentive attitude towards their own health will help to identify the disease before it will cause problems. The main symptoms of varicose veins:

stage of varicose veins of the legs
  • pain in the legs;
  • swelling;
  • the feeling of fatigue severity;
  • lower tolerance of physical load on the legs;
  • the appearance of vascular pattern on the skin;
  • the deterioration in the healing of minor skin injuries;
  • the pathological pigmentation of the skin.

The severity of these signs is different – it depends on the severity of the disease, the duration of the course, the individual patient. Depending on the severity of varicose veins of the lower extremities klassificeret her on several levels. Classification according to the degree of compensation distinguishes three stages classification based on the characteristics of the flow of symptoms – 6 stages with the specification of complications.

The first (compensated) stage

At this stage the symptoms of varicose vein disease is expressed very poorly. Anatomically symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities in this case are a relatively small valve insufficiency in the deep veins of the legs. All violations of venous blood flow kompensiruet through healthy veins, not affected.

At this stage the patient may experience discomfort in the feet in the big physical activity. Symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities are extremely rare appear swollen. Most often, the patient simply notes the fact that the legs were more tired in the evening. Visible symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities no.

Clinically, this stage of varicose disease of the lower limbs corresponds to the class 0 – symptoms absent during inspection and palpation, the patient has no complaints. To recognize varicose veins on the legs at this stage in the case, if to do an ultrasound with Doppler, but since no complaints, it is rarely prescribed. As treatment of varicose disease of lower extremities at this stage, effectively changing the working conditions, the transition to a more healthy diet, wearing compression stockings mild compression, moderate exercise.

The second (subcompensated) stage

subcompencirovanna stage

This stage is typified by more pronounced symptoms. Changes in the structure of venous valves is more deep, so they develop the outward signs of varicose veins, but they do not lead to complications. Leg pain with varicose veins develops at this stage. Swellings appear almost every night, especially after a long stay on his feet in uncomfortable shoes.

At night, the patient noted numbness and cramps – often, they and take for the first signs of varicose veins on the legs. Morning tingling, sensitivity, the appearance of pathological pigmentation – signs of varicose veins deep veins of the lower extremities.

Externally varicose veins, the symptoms described above, manifested by the appearance of vascular pattern ("spider veins") on the skin, pigmentation disorders. The varicose veins on the legs are often accompanied by disturbance of the regeneration of skin injuries – cuts, scrapes, bruises heal much longer than usual.

Clinically the signs of varicose veins in the legs correspond to the four classes:

  • C1 – the first symptoms of varicose veins – de telangiectasia and reticular veins ("spider veins" and "veins");
  • C2 – distinct venous pattern on the skin, allowing to see how the appear enlarged veins;
  • C3 – edema, often it is this feature allows you to identify varicose veins deep;
  • C4a is a subclass of varicose veins of the lower extremities, symptoms which affect a variety of different processes in the skin – pigmentation, the development of eczema (C4b refers to decompensated varicose veins).

As can be seen from the above, the signs of varicose veins in the legs at this stage are very diverse. The survey involves inspection and palpation, Doppler ultrasound of vessels of lower extremities, biochemical blood analysis for the detection of clotting and risk of thrombosis.

Complications of this stage – swelling of leg and foot, as well as the development of inflammatory complications of phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. The symptoms of these States, except the visible signs of varicose veins, signs of reduced circulation in the legs.

Treatments for varicose veins at this stage – the use of drugs that help prevent blood clots, increase blood flow, strengthen the vascular wall. But these methods reduce the symptoms of varicose veins of the legs, but do not cause regression of the disease. If therapeutic techniques are ineffective, used surgical descriptions and photos on how to prepare for surgery, you can find on the Internet.

decompensated stage

The third (decompensated) stage

The symptoms and treatment of varicose veins at this stage are of the greatest complexity. If the patient does not pay attention to the first signs of varicose veins on the legs, not started treatment, there are complications of the disease. Symptoms of varicose veins in the legs at this stage are particularly pronounced – pain in the legs is almost constant, sometimes so intense that it is not allowed to move about independently. Progressing swelling, sometimes so much so that there is varicose lymphatic vessels – after lymph to the skin surface.

External signs of varicose veins on the legs are visible, sometimes ugly character protruding veins, a scattering of dark brown pigmented spots, sores that often become inflamed and suppurative processes occur. One of the characteristic signs of varicose eczema. Its first manifestations appear in the previous stage, but with decompensation it reaches its maximum manifestation.

At this stage of varicose veins, the symptoms of which manifest themselves most clearly, represents a serious threat to the health and sometimes the life of the patient. Pain in the legs, edema, paresthesia, numbness of the legs lead to the fact that the patient becomes unable to perform the work for which he did.

Clinically varicose veins in the decompensated stage correspond to three functional class – C4b, which is characterized by degenerative changes of the subcutaneous tissue, C6 – active venous ulcer and C5 – trophic ulcer in the healing stage. Complications of decompensated varicose trophic ulcers, thrombophlebitis, bleeding and inflammation of the ulcers, in severe cases – gangrene.

The diagnosis of decompensated varicose veins to put quite easily – a doctor will do it during the inspection. Diagnostic measures aimed to detect the degree of impaired blood flow in lower limbs and find the affected vein. For this purpose, ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasound, if necessary – MRI, venography, and other methods.

Treatment only operative. Vienna, in which the disturbed blood flow, is removed under ultrasound control, but even in this case, the signs of varicose veins of the legs do not disappear completely. Operation requires training, but is done fairly quickly, after which the patient may previously be activated. In the postoperative period it is necessary to wear anti-embolic compression underwear, a radical change in lifestyle and nutrition.

Complications that developed as the symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities, treat depending on severity. Trophic ulcers without inflammation treated conservatively with antibiotics, drugs that speed up the healing of wounds, and others. If the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions is low, apply surgical treatment – ulcer excised within healthy tissue, then hold the plastic skin.

If there is inflammation or bleeding, then surgery becomes the only effective method of treatment. Then follows a long postoperative period, which necessarily requires a radical change in the way of life of the patient to prevent recurrence of the disease.

varicose veins on legs prevention

Despite the severity of the condition, we must not forget about the importance of preventive and conservative measures. Even on a severe stage of varicose veins should be treated by taking drugs to strengthen the vascular wall, facilitate blood flow, thin the blood. Assign the therapy needs a doctor.

Gels, ointments and creams for external use, effectively eliminating the symptoms of varicose veins of the legs in the earlier stages, cannot be used if there is unhealed defects of the skin, especially inflamed sores. Even the presence of small scratches or abrasions is a contraindication to their use.

Insights

Varicose veins may develop years or even decades, its first signs often appear at a young age, but remain without attention and treatment. In the early stages of varicose veins are asymptomatic, so patients rarely seek medical help during this period. Later, when the symptoms become apparent, therapeutic measures can only stop the progression of the disease, but not to cause complete disappearance of symptoms.

26.03.2019