Varicose veins on the legs

Varicose veins is a disease accompanied by disorder of function of venous valves. The disease is dangerous — there is a risk of thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the inner walls of blood vessels) and blood clots, which can block the lumen of the vessel.

varicose veins on the legs

What are varicose veins

Most common varicose veins lose veins in the legs. Occurs persistent and irreversible expansion and change of length, in this case, the venous wall becomes thinner. Approximately every third woman and every tenth man in varying degrees, manifested by varicose veins. The beginning of the development of the disease accounts for most working age — 30-40 years.

Varicose veins starts with the deterioration of appearance of the legs. When a pathology reaches the late stages, you develop complications. Just started treatment relieves the patient from having surgery.

Varicose veins on the legs has the following stages of development:

  1. Zero stage, when a person complains of heaviness in the legs, but it is impossible to detect dilated blood vessels.
  2. Stage 1 is characterized in that on the legs, visible spider veins.
  3. Stage 2 is the stage of progression of the disease. People can detect signs of varicose veins on their own. Nodules on the legs are increased after prolonged sitting, and in women after prolonged wearing of shoes with high heels.
  4. Stage 3 is characterized by pronounced edema.
  5. 4 stage develop trophic changes in the legs. Skin due to accumulation of pigment gradually changes its color. The damaged blood vessels lead to the formation of venous ulcers.

Causes of

Varicose disease of the lower limbs occurs due to the increase in venous pressure. The reasons for the development of varicose veins:

  1. Heavy physical work, prolonged stay of the body in the same position.
  2. Overweight.
  3. Genetic predisposition.
  4. The use of hormones.
  5. Disruption of the endocrine system. Often disease venous vessels develops in women in menopause. In the body reduces the production of estrogen, which leads to deterioration of work of valves.

Secondary causes of developing varicose veins:

the reasons for the development of varicose veins
  1. Obstruction of normal outflow of blood from the venous vessels that occurs during pregnancy or the development of a malignant tumor.
  2. Stress.
  3. The influence of alcohol leads to the expansion of the lumen of the veins.
  4. The formation of arterial-venous anastomoses'.
  5. Intensive physical activity. At risk are all those involved in weightlifting.
  6. Wearing uncomfortable clothes or shoes. Women bad to wear tight shoes with high heels.

In the vessels, the pressure increases and the normal operation of the valves is broken. The result is the formation of reflux, i.e. the return current of blood through the veins.

Symptoms of varicose veins

Half of the patients in the early stages of development of varicose veins is not even aware of his presence, but the first signs of varicose veins appear on the 1st or 2nd stage. Characteristic symptoms:

  • the venous pattern in the form of asterisks, lines on the legs;
  • the sensation of pain in the legs, heaviness or fullness;
  • the appearance of muscle spasms (they often happen at night);
  • swelling (appear in the evening, and in women, worsens during pregnancy);
  • fatigue.

These symptoms of varicose veins are, if the person rotates to a horizontal position and lift the legs. But it is worth it to stand up like veins thicken again. Exacerbated discomfort after a long stay in a standing or sitting position, as a result of intensive physical exertion, a long workday.

At stage 3 or 4 varicose veins manifested additional symptoms:

  • pronounced swelling;
  • numerous vascular spiders.
  • pain syndrome of different severity (feelings may be shooting, throbbing), often attached to pain severe itching;
  • dark twisted veins on the legs;
  • the skin becomes dry, darken, covered with spots.
symptoms of varicose veins

Looks like

Varicose veins can be identified by the characteristic balls of the veins protruding above the skin surface. Peculiar appearance on the legs twisted, enlarged and bulging blood vessels. Additionally, you can see how appear on the skin spots and stars in dark blue. They also indicate the development of vascular pathology.

With the progression of varicose veins vessels can expand so that they begin to resemble grape bunches.


The diagnosis of varicose veins is based on the patient's complaints, inspection of lower extremities, laboratory and instrumental examinations. In the early stages, patients often do not go to the hospital because the lack of symptoms gives the impression that the vessel attachments are all fine.

During the examination the patient should be on his feet. In this position, the doctor is easier to determine the presence of vascular abnormalities and dysfunction in the normal flow of blood. Depending on the severity of the deformation of the veins, the presence of vascular pattern is determined by the stage of varicose veins. During palpation determine:

  • soreness;
  • the density of the deformed blood vessels;
  • the extent of the pathological sections of veins;
  • the presence of elevated temperature at the site of lesion.

The doctor is required to appoint or duplex scanning dopplerography of blood vessels. Special preparation of the patient to such a diagnostic procedure is not required. Using ultrasound to diagnose varicose veins early. Advanced method of diagnostics of blood vessels is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

A blood test is required to determine the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin level. Excess of platelets indicates blood clotting. Leukocytosis indicates a development in the body the inflammatory process.

Treatment of varicose veins

Varicose veins of the lower extremities treated with surgery modified disease vessels using sclerotherapy or medication. Actively used therapeutic exercise and wearing a medical Jersey.

Important in the treatment of disease is proper nutrition, enriched with vitamins to prevent the development of obesity.

Drug therapy

Medications (creams, ointments, pills varicose veins applied in the early stages of the disease). Assign them to:

diagnosis and treatment of varicose veins
  • reduce the pain;
  • relieve swelling;
  • improve the operation of the valves of the veins;
  • improve the tone of the vein walls;
  • restore normal blood flow;
  • prevent the development of complications of varicose veins.

All drugs when applied correctly do not cause side effects.

Folk remedies

Traditional treatments of the disease have the following advantages:

  • eliminate the causes of the disease;
  • you do not have contraindications;
  • are composed of large amounts of vitamins;
  • available for all patients.

For the treatment of patients used veins horse chestnut. Extract of it is included in creams, gels against varicose veins.


When surgical intervention is the removal of the affected veins. This does not prevent normal blood flow and poses no danger to the body. The load take on the deep veins, which compensate for the absence of superficial blood vessels.

The patient can be assigned, and sclerotherapy. The principle of operation is that the vessel is administered, gluing it to the wall and closes the lumen.


To prevent varicose veins need to swim.

To prevent varicose veins, you need to:

  • take a break when sitting or standing work;
  • to give up the habit to throw the legs while sitting;
  • do not wear tight fitting clothes;
  • women to give up wearing shoes with heels;
  • to combat constipation, entering into the diet foods that normalize bowel function;
  • activities swimming;
  • on at night to raise his feet (about 20 cm above the level of the heart);
  • stop Smoking and alcohol consumption;
  • the day drink at least 2 liters of water to avoid dehydration;
  • do not abuse solar baths.

Compression therapy

compression therapy

Varicose veins of the lower extremities involves wearing special hosiery or elastic bandages to reduce the load on the veins and eliminating stagnation of blood.

When choosing compression products take into account the degree of development of varicose veins and the structural features of the feet. Compression therapy can be administered at any stage of the disease.


To prevent the progression of the disease, assigned to products that strengthen the walls of blood vessels. The diet should include all fruits or berries that are rich in vitamin C. you Should increase the daily menu number of seafood — mussels, oysters, and shrimp.

An important place in clinical nutrition is leafy vegetables, lentils, celery, apples, oatmeal.

They provide normal bowel function, eliminate constipation. In addition, these meals promote weight loss, which is necessary for the treatment of varicose veins.

Complications of varicose veins

Complications occur at advanced stages of the disease. They are a danger to health and life of the patient. On the development of complications of varicose veins can indirectly testify to symptoms such as a fever (and not only in the lesion), weakness, sharp pain in legs with varicose veins.

Trophic ulcers

They appear in severe decompensation of blood flow. There is an increase in permeability of the vessel wall, causing the skin to darken. With the progression of the pathological process appears niveus seal, and as a result of injury the risk of developing ulcers significantly increased.

For the treatment of varicose veins necessary measures to increase the growth of connective tissue elements. Assigned wearing an elastic bandage. Shown vitamins, antispasmodics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic enzymes, tools to improve fat metabolism.


With this disease, clots, plugging the lumen of the vessels located under the skin. At the same time inflammation of a vein wall. Symptoms of thrombophlebitis:

  • redness of the affected veins;
  • severe pain;
  • the appearance of subfebrile temperature;
  • seal soft tissue felt on palpation.

This disease requires immediate hospitalization and emergency surgery.

Varicose veins during pregnancy

varicose veins during pregnancy

Pregnancy is the most common cause of the disease in women. Pathology occurs because:

  • adjustment of hormonal balance in the body that makes blood vessels fragile;
  • disruption of venous valves;
  • increase weight;
  • of heredity;
  • mismatched shoes and clothing for pregnant women;
  • physical inactivity (lack of movement causes stagnation of blood in the vessels of the lower extremities that leads to the development of varicose veins).

During pregnancy, you can wear a compression garment. Should be included in the diet of vitamin-rich meals.